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5000 PALAVRAS WELL-PRONOUNCED WORDS IN PORTUGUESE Jairo Gomes Presentation Brazilian Portuguese has become an icon around the world, now it’s time to make it acquainted. 5000 well-pronounced words in Portuguese is an amazing and invaluable tool for all learners of Portuguese, updated and detailed Portuguese-English vocabulary, highlighting its first real meanings followed by the Brazilian pronunciation spoken in the most important metropolis of Brazil, specially designed for English speakers. Easy to read, and comprehend. It’s an engaging and efficient resource made of an intense research, compared with well-known sources, enabling students of all levels to get the most out of their studies. Based on the word frequency, which has a key role to play in language development according to a growing consensus. You can maximize your learning process accurately, adding exactness and grace to your speech and writing as a Brazilian native speaker through this book. Pronunciation Guide See the notes below and the symbols adopted in this book for a good pronunciation. Similar sounds to English Consonants /p/ like in pencil /b/ like in ball /m/ like in mother /k/ like in kitchen /g/ like in golden /f/ like in fat /v/ like in vehicle /s/ like in soul /sh/ like in share /z/ like in zero /zh/ like in vision /l/ like in labor Every phoneme stands for a single symbol, except in /sh/ and /zh/. Close sounds to English Oral vowels /a/ Central tongue, close to the a of father, but jaw and tongue not far back. asa /aza/“wing” No symbol was adopted in this book for a in final unstressed syllables. /i/ Between vowel sounds of sit and seat, close to the y of copy. vida /vida/ “life” /u/ Between vowel sounds of book and boot. chuva /shuva/ “rain, shower” /ɛ/ Open e, less open than /a/, between vowel sounds of bag and beg. fé /fɛ/ “faith” /e/ Close e, articulated with the mouth less open than /ɛ/, as in the a of late, but more clipped. fez /fes/ preterit of fazer (3rd pers. sing.) In unstressed word-final position, it’s reduced to /i/: sabe /sabi/ present of saber (3rd pers. sing.) /ɔ/ Open o, similar to the vowels of law e saw as pronounced in the northeast U. S., or in U. K., but with the mouth a little more open. loja /lɔzha/ “store, shop” /o/ Close o, like the sound of the vowel in go, but more clipped. sopa /sopa/ “soup” In unstressed word-final position, it’s reduced to /u/: fogo /fogu/ “fire” Oral diphthongs In Portuguese the crescent or decrescent diphthongs are always composed by a vowel joined to one of the two of its semivowels, /y/ and /w/. /y/ like the y of youth. /w/ like the w of awake. Crescent diphthongs (semivowel followed by vowel): área /arya/ “area” série /sɛryi/ “series” sábio /sabyu/ “wise” água /agwa/ “water” tranquilo /trãkwilu/ “calm” vácuo /vakwu/ “vacuum” Among those, there are other crescent diphthongs which may be formed in the Brazilian Portuguese speech. Decrescent diphthongs (vowel followed by semivowel): /ay/ pai /pay/ “father” /ɛy/ ideia /idɛya/ “idea” /ey/ leite /leyti/ “milk” /ɔy/ dói /dɔy/ “present of to hurt (third person singular)” /oy/ dois /doys/ “two” /uy/ cuidado /kuydadu/ “caution; care” /aw/ mau /maws/ “bad” /ɛw/ céu /sɛw/ “sky’ /ew/ possível /posivew/ “possible” /iw/ útil /utiw/ “useful” /ow/ sou /sow/ “present of to be (first person singular)” Note that L in the end of a syllable or word is made by /w/ and not /l/. Consonants /t/ Like the t of time, but with the tongue touching upper incisive teeth. mito /mitu/ “myth” /d/ Like the d of door, but with the tongue touching upper incisive teeth. espada /espada/ “sword” In Brazil /t/ e /d/ also can be affricate, before /i/ e /ĩ/: tia /tshia/ “uncle” dia /dzhia/ “day” /n/ Like the n of number, but with the tongue touching upper incisive teeth. nove /nɔvi/ “nine” /r/ The tip of the tongue vibrates rapidly in the upper alveolus, like the tt of better in the American pronunciation. In São Paulo, it occurs with the letter r in the middle of a word (with some exceptions) and in the end of words: caro /karu/ “expensive” prato /pratu/ “plate” porta /pɔrta/ “door” achar /ashar/ “to find” In Rio de Janeiro and in the Northeast region, the r in the final of a syllable and a word may be pronounced with the uvula. Portuguese sounds but no English sounds Consonants /R/ The soft palate vibrates with a passage of the air. It happens in the beginning of the words with the letter r and in the middle of the words with double rr: roda /Rɔda/ “wheel” carro /kaRu/ “car” It may also occur in the middle of the words after n and s: enrolar /ẽRolar/ “to coil, to roll up” Israel /izRaɛw/ “Israel” It may varies a lot in Brazil: trill or fricative, velar or uvular, voiced or voiceless. /L/ The back of the tongue touches the palate, then the air escapes by the sides. It occurs in words with lh. Close to the pronunciation of lli of million, but articulated in a single phoneme. ilha /iLa/ “island” /ñ/ The back of the tongue touches the palate and part of the air is diverted to the nasal fossae. It occurs in words with nh. vinho /viñu/ “wine” Nasal vowels and diphthongs The vowels and the nasal vowels indicated with a tilde ( ~) are articulated the same way, though in the nasals, part of the air flow through the nose, provoking a characteristic sound and effect. /ã/ campo /kãpu/ “field” santo /sãtu/ “saint, holy” The pronunciation of nasal a is close to the u of summer or runner but a little more open and central, with a resonance of the air in the nasal fossae. /ẽ/ vento /vẽtu/ “wind” Usually articulated like /ẽ/ followed by /y/, or the diphthong /ey/ nasalized. /ĩ/ limpo /lĩpu/ “clean” Usually articulated like /ĩ/ followed by /y/. /õ/ sombra /sõbra/ “shadow; shade” Usually articulated like /õ/ followed by /w/, or the diphthong /ow/ nasalized. /ũ/ profundo /profũdu/ “deep” Usually articulated like /ũ/ followed by /w/. To make it easier, it was not adopted /ẽy/, /ĩy/, /õw/ and /ũw/ in the diphthongs, as well the tilde (~) above /y/ and /w/. Other important nasal diphthongs /ãy/ Articulated as /ã/ directly followed by an /y/, also nasalized. mãe /mãy/ “mother” /ãw/ Articulated as /ã/ directly followed by an /w/, also nasalized. mão /mãw/ “hand” /õy/ Articulated as /õ/ directly followed by an /y/, also nasalized, as well as the nasalization of diphthong /oy/. põe /põy/ “present of to put (third person singular)” /ũy/ Articulated as /ũ/ directly followed by an /y/, also nasalized, as well as the nasalization of the diphthong /uy/. muito /mũytu/ “much, very” Other symbols _ to highlight stressed vowel Used with more than one syllable words or one syllable words with diphthong or triphthong. círculo /sirkulu/ “circle” sal /saw/ “salt” * unstressed pronunciation Used with unstressed words or double pronunciation, one of them unstressed. me /mi*/ “me, to me; myself” A a a* the; her; it; (pl. as) them; to; at à a* to the, at the (pl.: às) [contraction of preposition a and article a] abaixo abayshu below, down, under, underneath abalar abalar to shock; to rock, to affect [emotionally] abandono abãdonu abandonment, desertion abandonar abãdonar to abandon, to leave, to desert, to quit abastecimento abastesimẽtu supply, provision, ration abater abater to come down, to fall abdicar abdikar to abdicate abelha abeLa bee aberto, -ta abɛrtu, -ta open abertura abertura opening, gap abismo abizmu abyss abordagem abordazhẽ approach abordar abordar to approach, to deal with